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Pollino National Park

The southernmost beech forest in Europe

Beech trees older than 600 years

The thousand-year-old Heldreich's Pines

The rare Middle Spotted Woodpecker

The area

Pollino National Park, the largest protected area in Italy, was established in 1993 astride two regions – Basilicata and Calabria – and between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Ionian Sea. It includes the territory of 56 Municipalities: 32 in the Province of Cosenza, 22 in the Province of Potenza, and 2 in the Province of Matera.

The protected area is mainly characterized by a mountainous morphology, with three massifs belonging to the Southern Apennines, specifically the Lucanian and the Calabrian Apennines: Pollino massif, located in the heart of the Park, Orsomarso mountain range in the south-west, Monte Alpi in the north.

Pollino massif is the highest mountain of the Southern Apennines, with summits of over 2,000 m, such as Serra Dolcedorme (2,267 m), Monte Pollino (2,248 m), Serra del Prete (2,181 m), Serra delle Ciavole (2,127 m), and Serra di Crispo (2,053 m). Between the latter two summits, the so-called “Grande Porta” (Big Entrance) leads to Piani di Pollino, the most famous plateau of the area surrounded by high mountain ridges where you can admire the most ancient specimens of the Heldreich’s Pine, the symbol of the Park.

The plain of Campotenese separates Pollino massif from Orsomarso mountains, rising up in the south-western area of the Park with a thick vegetation: Cozzo del Pellegrino (1,987 m), La Mula (1,935 m), Montea (1,825 m), Monte La Caccia (1,744), and Monte Palanuda (1,632 m) characterize an area of absolute integrity and beauty. In the northern section of the Park, Monte Alpi rises (1,900 m) and, westernmost, Monte La Spina (1,652 m).

The landscape is extremely varied: while in the north it slopes gently towards the rivers Sinni and Mercure-Lao, in the south it is rough and rugged. The territory is characterized by a sequence of mountains, plateaus, hills, crags and cliffs, magmatic rocks, dolomite rocks, glacial cirques, moraine deposits, caves, gorges. Some rivers are surrounded by a luxuriant woodland vegetation, such as River Peschiera, while others are trapped in deep gorges, such as rivers Raganello, Argentino, and Lao. Limestone is the dominant rock type, but there are also pillow lava formations, such as Timpa delle Murge. The gentle wooded slopes contrast with the imposing Timpa di San Lorenzo and its 800 m vertical rock face.

The vegetation’s distinguishing feature is the great variety of species bearing witness to the variety and vastness of the territory and the different climatic conditions influencing it. For some endemic species and the presence of rare plant species composition, this is a unique area in the Mediterranean. However, what makes the mountain and high mountain vegetation of Pollino really unique is the Heldreich’s Pine, the symbol of the Park: isolated or in small stands, this imposing tree can be found from the sunlit plateaus to the most inaccessible ridges, clambering up rough rock mountain sides and exposing tenaciously to bad weather and strong winds.

Heldreich’s Pine plays a very important role, both from an evolution and conservation point of view. In fact, it is considered as a true “living fossil”, a relict species of the “phytomigration” movements of the Balkan Peninsula associated with the great glaciations. The extraordinary vitality preserving it to this day derives from the relevant combination of particular botanical features of great value in relation to the habitat where it lives.

Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
View from Capotenese plateau - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Piano di Toscano with view over the summit of Serra Dolcedorme - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Beech trees twisted by wind and frost on Pollino Massif
Heldreich's Pines watching over Serra del Prete - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
View over Raganello Valley - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Nocturnal view of Rotonda and Latrico - Photo by Francesco Lemma
In Serra del Prete, between Calabria and Basilicata - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Panoramic view of the area - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
The effects of avalanches - Photo by Francesco Lemma
The summit of Monte Pollino - Photo by Francesco Lemma

The forest

The old-growth forest of Cozzo Ferriero in Pollino National Park (Municipality of Rotonda, Province of Potenza) has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. This beech forest develops along the ridge which from Coppola di Paola reaches Cozzo Ferriero, in Basilicata, in the countryside of the Municipality of Rotonda. It covers about 70 hectares and develops on a mainly flat area between 1,700 and 1,750 m, near the thalweg marking the border between Basilicata and Calabria. The area has a mainly western exposure and is geologically characterized by carbonate rocks – mostly dolomite limestone – on which moderately deep soils have formed. In this area, there are monumental beech trees over 500 years old, characteristic of the most mature stages of the forest dynamics, with trees of various sizes and deposits of dead trees, standing or windthrown, typical of old-growth beech forests. Here, the absence of significant human impact for a long enough time has fostered the natural dynamics, originating a complex forest rich in biodiversity.

The tree distribution according to the diameter clearly highlights the presence of two very different groups of trees: one group formed by small-size trees and another group formed by trees with a diameter of over 30 cm. The trees belonging to the first group are generally in good to decent shape: the trunk is usually straight and without malformations, and the crown is moderate and high, unlike more old-growth trees which often show the signs of age. Their distribution is not uniform and seems to concentrate mainly where the canopy is interrupted, favoring the successful establishment of young trees.

The old-growth forest of Cozzo Ferriero is the southernmost site in Europe, a refuge area where centuries-old trees have been able to adapt to climate change. The area represents one of the most important glacial refuge areas for the species and is home to unique genotypes which adapted to dry warm climates and whose conservation is crucial to understand the current climate change.

Locally, the high symbolic, historic, and cultural value of these forests is witnessed by their importance in the eyes of the local communities, who have respected and conserved them also in adverse climatic conditions and during difficult historical periods like the two world wars, handing them down to us.

Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma

The biodiversity

The varied orographic structure of the massif and its richness of vegetal formations and waters represent the foundation of the diversity of the animal populations inhabiting the Park.

Starting from the vast and varied world of insects, we must definitely mention Buprestis splendens, one of the rarest beetles in Europe, and Rosalia alpina, a wonderful and eye-catching blue-gray beetle with black spots, generally associated with mature beech forests. The amphibians of Pollino include several Italian endemic species or subspecies, such as the Italian Crested Newt, the Spectacled Salamander, the Yellow-bellied Toad, and the more common European Tree Frog. Among reptiles, two threatened species live in the Park: the European Pond Turtle and the well-known Hermann’s Tortoise. In the watercourses and in spring waters, it is also possible to spot the crayfish and the freshwater crab, living in some streams with clean and well-oxygenated waters. In particular, the crayfish is part of the food chain as a prey of the small and very fragmented otter population living in some watercourses of the National Park.

The avifauna is diverse and just as important. There are twelve species of nesting diurnal birds of prey, including the Golden Eagle, nesting on the rock faces of the massif, and the Egyptian Vulture, the smallest European vulture. Once widely distributed in Southern Italy, it has now become very rare for the changing environmental conditions: in fact, this vulture follows the big movements of livestock, which today are sporadic. It goes back to Africa in April-May and can be found in the south-eastern area of Pollino National Park.

There are many mammal species in the Park. The species deserving of more attention is definitely the European Roe Deer, genetically very important because it probably belongs to the last population originating from the Apennines. Finally, thanks to its very rugged morphology offering many shelters, Pollino seems to be the most interesting area of the Southern Apennines for the conservation of the Wolf.

The flora of Pollino massif has interesting features for the presence of single flora species, relevant above all for their distribution and presence in the Park. However, the real symbol of the Park’s biodiversity is the famous Heldreich’s Pine: until the early 1800s, only shepherds and woodsmen knew of the existence of big pines on the summits of a few inaccessible mountains of Pollino. The first reports date from 1826, when for the first time the Neapolitan botanist Michele Tenore collected some small branches of this pine at Piani di Pollino (at about 1,850 m). However, they were mistaken for other similar pine species. Things remained unclear until the early 1900s. In 1905, Biagio Longo spoke for the first time of the Heldreich’s Pine for the peculiarity of the bark, ridged and furrowed into big polygonal patches, which remind of the armor used by the soldiers of the Roman Empire, called lorica segmentata (the Italian name of Heldreich’s Pine is “pino loricato”). The Heldreich’s Pine is the symbol of the Park, and plays a very important role both from an evolution and conservation point of view as a true “living fossil”.

Tawny Owl - Photo by Giorgio Amadori
The Common Firecrest, the smallest bird in Italy - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Fomes fomentarius on the trunk of a Beech Tree - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Tremella mesenterica, a fungus with an eye-catching color - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Freshwater Crayfish, common in the streams of Pollino - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Picchio muratore - Foto di Francesco Lemma
Eurasian Nuthatch - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Rosalia Longicorn - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Spectacled Salamander - Photo by Francesco Lemma
The Eurasian Wren, one of the tiniest birds in Europe - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Heldreich's Pines on Serra delle Ciavole - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Heldreich's Pines on Serra di Crispo - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo

Getting here

If you travel by car, both if you come from the north and from the south, exit the highway A3 between Lauria Nord, in Basilicata, and Spezzano Terme, in Calabria: you will reach many of the Park Municipalities, connected by road SS 19 which crosses the protected area.

In Calabria, on the Tyrrhenian coast, along road SS 18 from Tortora to Belvedere, you can take several roads leading inland: among the others, road SS 504 connecting Scalea to Papasidero and Mormanno, by way of Santa Domenica Talao, and road SS 105 connecting Belvedere to Castrovillari and Francavilla

If you come from road SS 106, you can also reach the Ionian coast by taking road SS 92. Always on this side, if you come from the north-east on road SS 106, immediately after Policoro (in Basilicata), you can take road SS 653, the “Sinnica” valley road leading to Valsinni in Valsarmento, and after the lake of Monte Cotugno you can continue to Valle del Frido. Going ahead along “Sinnica”, you will cross the thermal area of Latronico and reach the highway junction of Lauria Nord.

If you travel by bus, you can take the several bus lines stopping not far from Rotonda, in the Province of Potenza.

If you prefer the train, important railway junctions are Sapri, in Campania; Scalea, Paola, Roggiano Scalo - San Marco Argentano, Trebisacce, and Sibari, in Calabria; Policoro and Maratea in Basilicata. Finally, it is possible to stopover at the following airports: Lamezia Terme (CZ), Naples, and Bari.

For information:

Train timetable:

Bus service:,

The trails

You can visit the beech forest of Cozzo Ferriero by planning a hiking trip along the CAI trails crossing it. Below, an easy trail which starts from Fasanelli mountain lodge and gives the opportunity to carry out a pleasant tour inside this natural monument, now UNESCO World Heritage.

However, a visit to Pollino National Park cannot overlook the true symbol of this vast and wild territory: the Heldreich’s Pine. Even if there are many tours of all levels of difficulty to go and discover these fascinating trees, we would like to recommend a short and relaxed walk suitable for all visitors to Belvedere di Malvento, a panoramic viewpoint where you can admire some specimens.

1. Among the oldest beech trees in Europe

An easy trail to visit the beech forest of Cozzo Ferriero

  • Distance: 2.5 km (loop trail)
  • Elevation: 500 m
  • Estimated hiking time: 2 hours
  • Difficulty level: moderate

The tour follows the trail 904/C starting from Fasanelli mountain lodge and arriving in Cozzo Ferriero (1,790 m) at the connection with trail 908. It is a pleasant uphill trail surrounded by the beech forests inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The route of moderate difficulty develops along a forest road and continues along a trail, while some stretches go freely uphill into the beech forest.

The trail gives the opportunity to cross areas of freely developing old-growth forest and to reach a viewpoint over the Calabrian slope of the Park where you can enjoy the panoramic view of Pollino and Orsomarso Massifs, Sila, the whole Basilicata, and the Aeolian Islands.

2. Belvedere di Malvento and the Heldreich’s Pines

A short walk to discover the symbol of the National Park

  • Distance: 1.5 km
  • Elevation: 100 m
  • Estimated hiking time: 30 minutes
  • Difficulty level: easy

The trailhead of this short walk is Piano Ruggio (1,550 m AMSL), a karst plateau located in the heart of the Park, on the border between Basilicata and Calabria. From here, it is possible to reach Belvedere del Malvento, a viewpoint used in the past as a cableway station for the transport of timber, overlooking the rock faces of Timpone della Capanna and Piana di Castrovillari. From here, you can admire the Heldreich’s Pine, the symbol of Pollino National Park.

Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Centuries-old beech trees along the Park trails - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo

Things to do

Trekking and rafting, canyoning, climbing and free climbing, mountain biking and horseback riding: these are only some of the main outdoor activities you can practice throughout the year in Pollino National Park.

A true outdoor gym in which visitors will have the opportunity not only to choose and embark in different activities, but also to discover an invaluable cultural, landscape, and natural heritage. With its great variety of natural and human environments, Pollino Park represents an extraordinary wilderness area that is worth exploring: a place made by several sceneries, where wild and unspoiled nature combines with history, culture, and popular traditions.

In order to enrich the visit to the protected area and discover the old-growth beech forest of Cozzo Ferriero, we recommend a visit to the Ecomuseum of Pollino located in the historical complex Santa Maria della Consolazione in Rotonda, in the Province of Potenza, which collects the whole heritage of Pollino Park and illustrates the way of life characterizing its territory. Combining nature, history, and technology in a simple and captivating way, the Ecomuseum describes each aspect of the Park territory and represents an attraction for visitors of all age groups.

From the history of the Park to flora and fauna, from culture to traditions, the exhibition represents a fascinating journey leading its visitors to discover the protected area, with the aid of exhibition supports and innovative technologies based on the new languages of museum communication, as well as images, footage, 3D reconstructions, tactile, visual, and auditory experiences.

Besides the Ecomuseum, in the Park territory there are other important museums, including the Arbëreshë Culture Museum in San Paolo Albanese, the Museum of Thermalism in Latronico, the International Museum of Graphics in Castronuovo Sant'Andrea, the Arbëreshë Ethnic Museum in Civita, “Nibbio” or Nature Research Facility of Pollino in Morano Calabro, the Literary Park “Isabella Morra-Valsinni”, and the Virtual Museum in Ajeta.

There are also various visitor centers and information points, including the Visitor Center in Morano Calabro, the Visitor Center in Mormanno, the Visitor Center in Orsomarso, and the information points in Acquaformosa, Belvedere Marittimo, Sant'Agata d'Esaro, and Santa Domenica Talao.

In the Park, several official guides and specialized environmental-hiking guides organize hundreds of hikes throughout the year, from walks surrounded by the spring, summer, and autumn colors to snowshoeing in winter.

Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
Photo by Francesco Lemma
The "Seven Sisters" Beech Tree - Photo by Francesco Lemma
Old-growth beech forest in winter - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Grazing animals in the Park area - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo
Stream Peschiera - Photo by Giuseppe De Vivo


Logo Unesco

Project financed by funds identified under Law No. 77 of 20 February 2006 "Special measures for the protection and fruition of Italian sites of cultural, landscape-related, and natural interest, inscribed on the World Heritage List”, placed under UNESCO protection.